The main function of vitamin K1 is to act a co-factor for gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. However, it has also been shown to lessen oxidative stress. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin K1 supplementation on vascular responsiveness and oxidative status in rats that underwent femoral osteotomy. Twenty-four male rats were divided into three groups to serve as sham, osteotomy and vitamin K1 groups. Indices of oxidative stress (catalase), and oxidative damage (malondialdehyde) were analysed in erythrocytes. In order to evaluate vascular reactivity, concentration-response curves to phenylephrine, angiotensin II, 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin and histamine were constructed. The findings of this study clearly show that oxidative stress clearly increases after femoral osteotomy in rats. Also, this operation causes a significant depression in vascular responsiveness to contracting agents and endothelium-dependent vasodilators. However, vitamin K1 supplementation prevents vascular hyporeactivity by reducing oxidative stress and may represent a novel approach during osteotomy healing. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.