[期刊论文]


The hydrological role of biological topsoil crusts and water repellency in sandy dry-land areas

作   者:
Aaron Yair;Ram Almog;Youval Arbel;

出版年:2018

D  O  I:10.12657/landfana.036.004

页     码:33 - 44
出版社:Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe


摘   要:

Dryland areas are regarded as highly sensitive to climatic changes. A positive relationship between rainfall and environmental factors is often assumed for areas with an average annual rainfall of 100–300 mm. This assumption disregards the fact that a climate change in arid areas is not limited to climatic factors. It is often accompanied by a pronounced spatial variability in surface characteristics. The present work deals with the complex relationships among average annual rainfall, surface properties and the spatial redistribution of water resources in sandy areas located in the Northern Negev Desert. Two case studies are considered. The first deals with the hydrological effects of biological topsoil crusts on the water regime, along a rainfall gradient (86–170 mm). This study is based on five monitoring sites. Data obtained show a decrease in water availability with increasing annual rainfall. The findings are attributed to the decisive role played by the non-uniform properties of the topsoil crust along the rainfall gradient. The second case refers to the non-uniform development, and survival, of planted trees. Trees planted on steep dunes are well developed, with a high survival rate, whereas trees planted on low angle dunes are small. This study focused on the role of a water repellent layer on the water regime. Data obtained show a striking difference between steep and low dunes in all aspects studied, namely the degree of water repellency, frequency and magnitude of runoff events, infiltration depth and soil moisture. All variables monitored were found higher on steep than on low dunes. The large trees shed a substantial amount of leaves, whose decay developed a water repellent layer. Runoff generation over the repellent layer enhanced deep water penetration, through the process of subsurface flow. The lack of a water repellent layer over the low dunes prevented runoff generation, with its positive effects.



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所属期刊
Landform Analysis
ISSN: 1429-799X
来自:Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe